电光与控制, 2018, 25(3): 96, 网络出版: 2018-03-01

四旋翼无人机自主追踪系统设计

Design of Autonomous Tracking System for Quad-rotor UAVs
作者单位

中国矿业大学电力学院, 江苏 徐州 221116

摘要
为实现四旋翼无人机自主飞行、定点悬停和跟踪地面目标的系统设计, 在系统中加入摄像头来采集地面信息, 进行相应的图像处理后, 所得结果结合视野的九宫格分割法, 可以获得待追寻目标位置信息。系统包含超声波定高模块, 将传统的无人机运动控制的六自由度简化为四自由度。采用将位置信息引入到PID控制系统中的方法, 获得四电机的控制命令, 进而实现前后左右的移动。此外, 运用双控制器, 一台控制器用于控制飞机运动, 另一台控制器用于控制系统的各个模块, 减少数据处理负担, 加快处理速度。最终, 实现预期的自主追踪效果, 与已有方法相比, 具有更简化的运动控制思路, 跟踪更灵敏。
Abstract
In order to realize the system design objectives of quad-rotor UAVs, such as autonomous flying, hovering and ground-target tracking, a camera is added to the system to capture the ground information. The result of image processing is used together with sudoku segmentation method of vision to obtain the location information of the searched target. The system consists of an ultrasonic height-setting module. The motion control of UAVs is simplified from the traditional six degrees-of-freedom to four degrees-of-freedom. The location information is introduced to the PID control system, thus to obtain the control commands of the four motors, so that the motors can move in all directions. In addition, dual controllers are used. One is used to control the motion of the aircraft, and the other to control each module of the system, so as to reduce the burden of data processing and speed up the processing. Finally, the expected autonomous tracking effect is achieved. Compared with the existing methods, the motion control idea is more simplified, and the tracking of the aerial vehicle is more sensitive.
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